Earthquake Resistant or aseismic structures are designed to protect buildings to some or greater extent from earthquakes. While no structure can be entirely…
In fact, the most important points are relatively simple and can be understood with simple logic without much building expertise.
Stiffness is the most important. This ensures that the house moves as a “block” with the ground and does not fall apart. Concrete has a high compressive strength, but hardly any tensile strength. Steel, on the other hand, has a very high tensile strength. Which means that steel increases the stiffness considerably. Stiffness can be further increased by prestressing steel. Vertically continuous load-bearing elements, such as buttresses, further increase the resistance of the building.
Since earthquakes usually last a few minutes, redundant load-bearing elements are important, so the yielding of one element does not directly lead to collapse.
The floor plan should be symmetrical and compact. The ratio between the height and the width is very good up to a ratio of 1:4. A symmetrical design contributes to the fact that the building can generate less natural vibrations. The center of gravity should be as close to the ground as possible, e.g. floors that become smaller towards the top lead to a low center of gravity.
A rocky soil is more advantageous. Sandy soil could liquefy during a strong earthquake, causing the building to sink.
There are still many highly professional earthquake safeguards, such as sliding pendulum bearings, vibration dampers, etc., that can be used. However, I only want to describe the basics here, which already lead to a high level of protection in “normal” houses.